IBM Skip to main content
     Home  |  Products & services  |  Support & downloads  |  My account
 Select a country
IBM Archives
· Exhibits
· Reference
· Documents
· Multimedia
· Links
Using the Archives
Advanced Search


Reference / Glossary

IBM Archives
glossary entries for Aglossary entries for Bglossary entries for Cglossary entries for Dglossary entries for Eglossary entries for Fglossary entries for Gglossary entries for Hglossary entries for Iglossary entries for Jglossary entries for Kglossary entries for Lglossary entries for Mglossary entries for Nglossary entries for Oglossary entries for Pglossary entries for Qglossary entries for R
glossary entries for Sglossary entries for Tglossary entries for Uglossary entries for Vglossary entries for Wglossary entries for Xglossary entries for Yglossary entries for Zglossary entries for 0glossary entries for 1glossary entries for 2glossary entries for 3glossary entries for 4glossary entries for 5glossary entries for 6glossary entries for 7glossary entries for 8glossary entries for 9
Cross References
C language n. A language used to develop software applications in compact, efficient code that can be run on different types of computers with minimal change.
cache 1. n. A special-purpose buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage, used to hold a copy of instructions and data obtained from main storage and likely to be needed next by the processor. 2. n. A buffer storage that contains frequently accessed instructions and data. 3. n. An optional part of the directory database in network nodes where frequently used directory information may be stored to speed directory searches. 4. v. To place, hide or store in a cache.
CADAM n. Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing. The use of computers in the design and manufacture of products such as cars, airplanes, ships, and computers.
canonical adj. In computer science, pertaining to an expression that conforms to a specific set of rules.
card 1. n. An electronic circuit board that is plugged into a slot in a system unit. 2. n. A plug-in circuit assembly.
cardholder n. In e-commerce, a person who has a valid payment card account and uses software that supports e-commerce.
case-sensitive adj. Pertaining to the ability to distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.
cassette n. In e-commerce, a software component consisting of a collection of Java classes and interfaces that can be easily installed into other software components involved in e-commerce to extend the function of these components.
catalog 1. n. A directory of files and libraries, with reference to their locations. A catalog may contain other information such as the types of devices in which the files are stored, passwords, and blocking factors. 2. v. To enter information about a file or a library into a catalog.
CD-ROM n. High-capacity read-only memory in the form of an optically read compact disc.
central directory n. A repository for storing resource location information centrally registered by network nodes or cached as the result of network searches.
central processing unit n. The part of a computer that includes the circuits that control the interpretation and execution of instructions. A CPU is the circuitry and storage that executes instructions. Traditionally, the complete processing unit was often regarded as the CPU, whereas today the CPU is often a microchip. In either case, the centrality of a processor or processing unit depends on the configuration of the system or network in which it is used.
certificate n. In e-commerce, a digital document that binds a public key to the identity of the certificate owner, thereby enabling the certificate owner to be authenticated. A certificate is issued by a certificate authority.
certificate authority n. In e-commerce, an organization that issues certificates. The CA authenticates the certificate owner's identity and the services that the owner is authorized to use, issues new certificates, renews existing certificates, and revokes certificates belonging to users who are no longer authorized to use them.
change management n. The process of planning (for example, scheduling) and controlling (for example, distributing, installing, and tracking) software changes over a network. This is sometimes known as "software management."
channel 1. n. A path along which signals can be sent, for example, data channel, output channel. 2. n. In data communication, a means of one-way transmission. 3. n. A functional unit, controlled by the processor, that handles the transfer of data between processor storage and local peripheral equipment.
check box n. A square box with associated text that represents a choice. When a user selects the choice, the check box is filled to indicate that the choice is selected. The user can clear the check box by selecting the choice again, thereby deselecting the choice.
checkpoint 1. n. Information about the status of a program's execution or the status of a data transfer that is recorded to enable the program or the data transfer to be restarted if it is ever interrupted. 2. n. The time at which such information is recorded. 3. v. To record such information.
CICS See Customer Information Control System.
circuit 1. n. One or more conductors through which an electric current can flow. 2. n. A logic device.
circular log n. A storage area for information that replaces the oldest information stored with the most recent.
clear data n. Data that is not enciphered.
click v. To press and release a button on a pointing device without moving the pointer off the object or choice.
client n. A computer system or process that requests a service of another computer system or process that is typically referred to as a server. Multiple clients may share access to a common server.
client/server n. In communications, the model of interaction in distributed data processing in which a program at one site sends a request to a program at another site and awaits a response. The requesting program is called a client; the answering program is called a server.
clipboard n. An area of storage provided by the system to hold data temporarily.
clipping v. In computer graphics, removing those parts of display elements that lie outside of a given boundary.
close n. A choice that removes a window and all of the windows associated with it from the workplace. For example, if a user is performing a task in a window and a message appears, or the user asks for help, both the message and the help windows disappear when the user closes the original window.
close of business n. End of the working day.
closed system n. A system whose characteristics comply with proprietary standards and that therefore cannot readily be connected to other systems.
closedown n. The deactivation of a device, program, or system.
cluster 1. n. A station that consists of a control unit (a cluster controller) and the terminals attached to it. 2. n. A group of APPN nodes that have the same network ID and the same topology database. A cluster is a subset of a NETID subnetwork. 3. n. In high-availability cluster multiprocessing (HACMP), a set of independent systems (called nodes) that are organized into a network for the purpose of sharing resources and communicating with each other.
cluster node n. In high-availability cluster multiprocessing (HACMP), an RS/6000 system that participates in a cluster.
coaxial cable n. A cable consisting of one conductor, usually a small copper tube or wire, within and insulated from another conductor of larger diameter, usually copper tubing or copper braid.
code n. A set of instructions for a computer.
code name n. The name used to designate a product or future product to obscure the purpose of the project from casual observers. The code name of an especially famous project can move into the vernacular, e.g., Winchester and Peanut.
collaborative management n. A cooperative relationship between Internet commerce partners and Internet service providers (ISPs) to ensure the successful completion of business transactions.
color palette n. A set of colors that can be displayed on the screen at one time. This can be a standard set used for all images or a set that can be customized for each image.
comb n. In a magnetic disk unit, an assembly of access arms that moves as a unit.
command line 1. n. On a display screen, a display line usually at the bottom of the screen, in which only commands can be entered. 2. n. In Common User Access (CUA) architecture, obsolete term for command area.
command prompt n. A displayed character or string of characters that indicates that a user may enter a command to be processed.
commerce service provider n. An Internet service provider that hosts merchant shopping sites and processes payments for the merchants.
Common Gateway Interface n. A standard for the exchange of information between a Web server and computer programs that are external to it. The external programs can be written in any programming language that is supported by the operating system on which the Web server is running.
communication adapter 1. n. A circuit card with associated software that enables a processor, controller, or other device to be connected to a network. 2. n. A mechanism that enables communication facilities to be attached to host processors.
communication common carrier n. In the U.S. and Canada, a public data transmission service that provides the general public with transmission service facilities; for example, a telephone or telegraph company.
communication control unit n. A communication device that controls transmission of data over lines in a network.
communication controller n. A type of communication control unit whose operations are controlled by one or more programs stored and executed in the unit. It manages the details of line control and the routing of data through a network.
communication line n. Obsolete term for telecommunication line.
communication port 1. n. An access point for data entry or exit to or from a communication device such as a terminal. 2. n. On a personal computer, a serial port to which a stand-alone modem can be attached.
compact disc 1. n. A disc, usually 4.75 inches in diameter, from which data is read optically by means of a laser. 2. n. A disc with information stored in the form of pits along a spiral track. The information is decoded by a compact-disc player and interpreted as digital audio data, which most computers can process.
compile 1. v. To translate all or part of a program expressed in a high-level language into a computer program expressed in an intermediate language, an assembly language, or a machine language. 2. v. To prepare a machine language program from a computer program written in another programming language by making use of the overall logic structure of the program, or generating more than one computer instruction for each symbolic statement, or both, as well as performing the function of an assembler.
compile [2] 3. v. To translate a source program into an executable program (an object program). 4. v. To translate a program written in a high-level programming language into a machine language program.
compile time n. The time period during which a computer program is being compiled into an executable program.
compiler 1. n. A program that translates a source program into an executable program (an object program). 2. n. A program that decodes instructions written as pseudo codes and produces a machine language program to be executed at a later time.
component 1. n. Hardware or software that is part of a functional unit. 2. n. A part of a structured type or value, such as an array element or a record field.
compressed video n. Video resulting from the process of digitally encoding and decoding a video image or segment using a variety of computer techniques to reduce the amount of data required to represent the content accurately.
compression 1. n. The process of eliminating gaps, empty fields, redundancies, and unnecessary data to shorten the length of records or blocks. 2. n. Any encoding to reduce the number of bits used to represent a given message or record.
computer n. A functional unit that can perform substantial computations, including numerous arithmetic operations and logic operations without human intervention during a run. In information processing, the term computer usually describes a digital computer. A computer may consist of a stand-alone unit or may consist of several interconnected units.
computer word n. A word suitable for processing by a given computer, usually treated as a unit.
computerized branch exchange n. An exchange in which a central node acts as a high-speed switch to establish direct connections between pairs of attached nodes.
concern n. formal indication from one group or employee to another that the first is worried about some action by the other (as in: "We have a concern that the schedule may be too aggressive.").
concur v. To give an irrevocable formal agreement.
configuration 1. n. The manner in which the hardware and software of an information processing system are organized and interconnected. 2. n. The devices and programs that make up a system, subsystem, or network.
configuration file n. A file that specifies the characteristics of a system device or network.
configure v. To describe to a system the devices, optional features, and programs installed on the system.
congestion See network congestion.
connectivity 1. n. The capability of a system or device to be attached to other systems or devices without modification. 2. n. The capability to attach a variety of functional units without modifying them.
content link n. In computer user interfaces, a hypertext link that leads directly to pertinent information. A content link allows the user to find needed information immediately.
controller n. A device that coordinates and controls the operation of one or more input/output devices, such as workstations, and synchronizes the operation of such devices with the operation of the system as a whole.
cook book 1. n. Used as an affectionate term for some master reference document. 2. adj. Describing in great detail a procedure for a person to follow, down to what commands to type and when.
cookie n. Information that a Web server stores on a user's computer when the user browses a particular Web site. This information helps the Web server track such things as user preferences and data that the user may submit while browsing the site. For example, a cookie may include information about the purchases that the user makes (if the Web site is a shopping site). The use of cookies enables a Web site to become more interactive with its users, especially on future visits.
copy n. A choice that places a copy of a selected object onto the clipboard.
Corrective Service Diskette n. A diskette provided by IBM to registered service coordinators for resolving user-identified problems with previously installed software. This diskette includes program updates designed to resolve problems
CPU See central processing unit.
crash v. To halt in an unrecoverable manner, when not expected.
crisp up 1. v. To add meaningful content or to make more impressive or flashy (as in: "We'll have to crisp up this presentation before the Director sees it.") 2. v. To remove meaningful content, to reduce it to the essential (as in: "We'll have to crisp up this presentation before the Director sees it.")
cursor 1. n. A movable, visible mark used to indicate a position of interest on a display surface. 2. n. A visible indication of the position where user interaction with the keyboard will appear. The keyboard cursors are the selection cursor and the text cursor.
Customer Information Control System n. An IBM licensed program that provides online transaction processing services and management for critical business applications. CICS runs on many IBM and non-IBM platforms (from the desktop to the mainframe) and is used in various types of networks that range in size from a few terminals to many thousands of terminals. The CICS application programming interface (API) enables programmers to port applications among the hardware and software platforms on which CICS is available.
cut n. A choice that moves a selected object and places it onto the clipboard. The space it occupied is usually filled by the remaining object or objects in the window.
cylinder 1. n. In an assembly of magnetic disks, the set of all tracks that can be accessed by all the magnetic heads of a comb in a given position. 2. n. The tracks of a disk storage device that can be accessed without repositioning the access mechanism
  About IBM  |  Privacy  |  Legal  |  Contact