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Reference / Glossary

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Cross References
           
31 The Type 31 Alphabetical Duplicating Punch was introduced by IBM in 1933, and it automatically ejected one card and fed another in 0.65 second. These machines were equipped with separate alphabetical and numerical keyboards. The alphabetical keyboard was similar to a conventional manual typewriter except that the shift, tab, backspace and character keys were eliminated, and a skip, release, stacker and "1" key were provided.
 
36 [1] When making its May 1983 debut, the System/36 was one of the easiest-to-use general purpose computers ever introduced by IBM. It combined data processing, business color graphics and office management functions in a low-cost computer for first-time and experienced users.
 
36 [2] The System/36 5360 system unit offered 128,000 to 512,000 characters of main storage and 30 million to 400 million characters of internal disk storage -- up to twice the maximum main storage provided by the earlier System/34. Specialized industry terminals which could be used with the System/36 included the IBM 3600 and 4700 finance communication systems, the IBM 5260 retail system, the IBM 5230 data collection system and the IBM 1255 magnetic character reader.
 
36 [3] Purchase prices for typical System/36 configurations ranged from $34,000 for a basic system (with 128K characters of main memory, 30 million characters of disk storage, two displays, one printer and the operating system) to $176,000 for a large system (with 512K characters of memory, 400 million characters of disk storage, 26 displays, three printers, a tape drive, the operating system plus languages and utilities). Some models of the System/36 were withdrawn from marketing in September 1986.
 
38 [1] The System/38 midrange computer was rolled out in October 1978 with many advanced features. These include a single-level store, object-oriented addressing and a high-level machine interface to the user. The System/38 had been designed to facilitate terminal-oriented, transaction-driven operations and to improve programmer productivity.
 
38 [2] The basic system included a central processing unit with main storage ranging between 524,288 and 1.572 million positions, 64.5 to 387.1 million positions of disk storage, a console keyboard/display, a diskette magazine drive and work station controllers for up to 40 directly attached IBM 5250 Information Display System devices. Depending on processor model, main storage cycle times were 600 or 1,100 billionths of a second.
 
38 [3] The purchase price for a complete System/38 at announcement was $91,780. Deliveries of the product began in August 1979, and some models of the System/38 were withdrawn from marketing between March 1982 and June 1986.
 
301 The 301 (better known as the Type IV) Accounting Machine was the first card-controlled machine to incorporate class selection, automatic subtraction and printing of a net positive or negative balance. Dating to 1928, this machine exemplifies the transition from tabulating to accounting machines. The Type IV could list 100 cards per minute.
 
305 [1] IBM announced the 305 Random Access Memory Accounting Machine (RAMAC) on September 13, 1956, as a "revolutionary new product to accelerate the trend toward office and plant automation." It made "continuous accounting" or "in-line data processing" possible, whereby all affected records are adjusted immediately after a transaction occurs.
 
305 [2] The 305 system was built around a magnetic disk memory unit with a storage capacity of five million digits. Information in the form of magnetic spots was stored on both sides of 50 metal disks, arranged in a vertical stack which rotated at 1,200 revolutions a minute. An access arm moved rapidly up and down, reaching between the spinning disks to retrieve the stored data. After processing, the information obtained was reproduced by the printer unit or punched into IBM cards.
 
305 [3] The monthly rental for a basic RAMAC was $3,200, of which $650 was for the disk storage unit, $1,625 for the processing unit and power supply, and $925 for the console, printer and card punch. More than a thousand of these vacuum tube-based computers were built before production ended in 1961.
 
3081 [1] The IBM 3081 Processor Complex joined the IBM product line in November 1980. It offered 16, 24 or 32 million characters of main storage and had 16 or 24 integrated channels. The 3081 used a new "dyadic" design in which two processors, each with its own assigned set of channels, shared main processor storage and operated under a single control program.
 
3081 [2] It had a maximum aggregate data transfer rate of 72 million characters per second and could attach to most direct access storage devices used with other large IBM processors.
 
3081 [3] An IBM 3081 Processor Complex, which included a processor, processor controller, power unit, coolant distribution unit, systems and operator's consoles, with 16 channels and 16 million characters of main storage, could be purchased at time of announcement for $4,046,240, while a 24 channel, 32 million character IBM 3081 Processor Complex could be purchased for $4.6 million.
 
3081 [4] Other models of the 3081 were introduced in October 1981, September 1982, March 1983 and February 1984. All models were withdrawn from marketing in August 1987.
 
3090 [1] The most powerful IBM computer of its time, the 3090 high-end processor of the IBM 308X computer series incorporated one-million-bit memory chips, Thermal Conduction Modules to provide the shortest average chip-to-chip communication time of any large general purpose computer, and the industry's most advanced operating systems.
 
3090 [2] Announced in February 1985, the Model 200 (entry-level with two central processors) and Model 400 (with four central processors) IBM 3090 had 64 and 128 megabytes of central storage, respectively. At the time of announcement, the purchase price of a Model 200 was $5 million, and the machine was available in November 1985. The Model 400 was available only as a field upgrade from the Model 200 at a cost of $4.3 million beginning in the second quarter of 1987.
 
3090 [3] A later six-processor IBM 3090 Model 600E, using vector processors, could perform computations up to 14 times faster than the earlier four-processor IBM 3084.
 
3270 The 3270 Information Display System was announced by IBM in May 1971. Developed at IBM's facility in Kingston, N.Y., the 3270 system brought new simplicity to the gathering and communication of information. It could be attached to a System/370 or System/360 Model 25 or larger. The 3270 system was withdrawn from marketing in October 1977.
 
3284 Introduced in May 1971, the 3284 Hard Copy Printer was a cost-reduced printer that used the no-work wire matrix print head. A sprocket feed similar to that of a typewriter was used for paper feed along with a solenoid/ratchet mechanism. The 3284 ran at 40 characters per second. It was withdrawn from marketing in August 1982.
 
3380 [1] Originally announced in June 1980, the IBM 3380 Direct Access Storage was available in six models. Each unit could store up to 2.52 billion bytes and had an average seek time of 16 milliseconds and a data transfer rate of 3.0 megabytes per second.
 
3380 [2] The 3380 used advanced film head technology, higher density and new controller logic to achieve greater reliability and improved environmental characteristics (less floor space, electrical power and heat dissipation than any previous IBM disk storage product on an equal capacity basis). Some models of the 3380 were withdrawn in October 1981 and May 1986, and newer models were announced in September 1987.
 
3705 [1] To reduce the load placed on host computers by network communications, IBM announced the 3705 Communications Controller in March 1972. It could coordinate transmission between a computer and remote terminals on up to 352 telephone lines -- twice the capacity of any previous IBM control unit.
 
3705 [2] Equipped with its own small processor and memory capacity of up to 240K, it could be programmed to emulate prior transmission control devices and to perform many of the line management and data conversion tasks formerly handled by System/360 host computers.
 
3705 [3] It operated with all models of the System/370, and almost all the terminal devices offered by IBM could be linked to the 3705. The 3705 was withdrawn from marketing in December 1985.
 
3850 The "honeycomb" cell structure of the IBM 3850 Mass Storage System, introduced in 1974, stored small cartridges containing spools of magnetic tape. Each spool could store 50 million characters of information, and up to 472 billion characters could be economically filed in one 3850 system for online computer use.
 
3890 [1] Announced in 1973, the 3890 Document Processor was designed to help banks to process and distribute more checks faster and with fewer errors. It could read and sort a minimum of 2,400 six-inch documents per minute, and could print a batch and identification number on each document to improve item control.
 
3890 [2] Equipped with its own control and program storage, the 3890 could be linked directly to virtual storage models of IBM System/370 or used independently for fine sorting operations.
 
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