Web pages have titles that describe a topic or purpose.


Rationale

Descriptive page titles help users orient themselves when navigating a Web site or Web application. For example, screen readers read page titles to blind users before they read other page content, which enables users to quickly identify pages in a Web site or Web application. If titles are missing or not descriptive, screen reader users must delve deeper into the content to determine the purpose of a page.

Required development and unit test techniques


To comply with this checkpoint, you must meet all of the following techniques.

These techniques are defined in WCAG 2.0 Level A Success Criterion 2.4.2 (link resides outside of ibm.com).

  1. Provide Web page titles: Provide descriptive titles for Web pages AND associate a title with a Web page.

Note: The examples presented in the techniques are not exhaustive. They are meant to illustrate the spirit of this checkpoint.

General examples

  1. Provide Web page titles: Provide descriptive titles for Web pages AND associate a title with a Web page.

    To comply with this technique, you must implement all of the following examples.

    General example 1

    Web page titles should be short, identify the subject of the page and make sense when read out of context. These attributes allow users to quickly understand the subject of a page without having to read more of the content. For example, when a page opens with the following title, users know that they have navigated to an accessibility page for developers and testers.

    <title>Human Ability and Accessibility Center | Developers testers</title>

    A title also helps identify page subjects in search results and site maps. For additional information, refer to the WCAG 2.0 examples of providing descriptive titles for Web pages (link resides outside of ibm.com).

    Required unit tests for general development technique 1

    Manually perform the following unit test.

    • Make sure each Web page has a title that is relevant to its content and that the title will help identify the page when its content is read out of context.

HTML examples

For techniques that have no technology-specific examples, refer to the general examples for guidance.

  1. Provide Web page titles: Provide descriptive titles for Web pages AND associate a title with a Web page.

    To comply with this technique, you must implement the following example.

    HTML example 1

    Provide a title using the <title> element. All Web pages, including those with frames, must have a <title> element within the <head> elements on the page. As noted in the general example, titles help users to navigate pages without having to read deeply into the content. Also, titles that make sense when read out of context in search results and site maps help users navigate pages more efficiently. The following code is an example of a descriptive <title> element.

    <html>
      <head>
        <title>Human Ability and Accessibility Center</title>
      </head>
      <body>
      ...
      </body>
    </html>

    For additional information, refer to the WCAG examples of providing a title using the title element (link resides outside of ibm.com).

    Required unit tests for HTML development technique 1

    Manually perform the following unit test.

    • Identify the Web page title and confirm that the <title> element describes the page's content.

IBM® Lotus® Domino® examples

  1. Provide Web page titles: Provide descriptive titles for Web pages AND associate a title with a Web page.

    To comply with this technique, you must implement the following example must be implemented.

    Domino example 1

    In a Lotus Domino application, the title of the form or page displays in the title bar in the browser window. For example in Internet Explorer, if the window title is "Inspection form", the browser title is displayed as "Inspection form - Microsoft® Internet Explorer™." If the window title is missing, the browser displays the URL for the form or page as the title instead of a meaningful title. Use the following steps to add a window title to forms:

    1. Open the form or page and select Event: Window Title in the design pane.
    2. Enter a window title (enclosed in quotes) in the formula window.

    Required unit tests for Domino development technique 1

    Manually perform the following unit test.

    • Confirm that a meaningful title is provided for each page in the content.

Recommended techniques for Domino developers

While the techniques above are required, the following technique is recommended to enhance accessibility:


copyright 2011,2013 IBM Corporation

Last updated May 1, 2011.

W3C Recommendation 11 December 2008: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/ (link resides outside of ibm.com)
Copyright 1994-2009 W3C (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Keio University), All Rights Reserved.