If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page/application using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away. (Level A)


The intent of this checkpoint is to ensure content does not "trap" keyboard focus within subsections of content, leaving keyboard-only users no way to return to other content.

Since content that does not meet this checkpoint can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page/application, all content on the page/application (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference states that users must not be blocked from reaching all parts of the page/application, regardless of technology limitations.

Note: Standard exit methods may vary by platform. On many desktop platforms, the ESCAPE key is a standard method for exiting.

Refer to Understanding SC 2.1.2 for more information (external link to WCAG).

Development Techniques

Review the General techniques as well as other tabs applicable to your technology.  Prioritize the use of technology-specific techniques, and implement the General techniques as needed. You are always required to find, understand and implement accessible code techniques to meet the checkpoint. The documented techniques and supplements are not exhaustive; they illustrate acceptable ways to achieve the spirit of the checkpoint. If numbered, techniques are in order of preference, with recommended techniques listed first. Where used, IBM information that complements the WCAG techniques is indicated as supplemental.

General techniques

Any item in this section represents a technique deemed sufficient. Ensure you review WCAG Common Failures to avoid development mistakes.

Web (HTML, ARIA, CSS) techniques

There are no specific Web (HTML, ARIA, CSS) techniques for this checkpoint. Refer to the General techniques section.

Mobile (iOS) techniques

In addition to the General techniques, the iOS techniques in this section represent a technique or combination of techniques deemed sufficient for meeting this checkpoint. 

Meet G21: Ensuring that users are not trapped in content with the following:

Note: On a touch screen, users can navigate to any item by simply touching the screen. However, this does not meet the requirements of No Keyboard Trap. It must be possible to navigate away from all focusable elements by using the VoiceOver swipe gestures or equivalent keyboard commands.

Using the HTML5 audio/video API, JavaScript and CSS to implement keyboard focusable controls (Hybrid)

Apple recommends using the HTML5 <audio> and <video> elements for audio and video content on mobile Safari. These elements support audio and video playback natively in the browser  using the browser's  built-in controls.  Developers can also create their own customized media controllers for rich interactivity using web-standard CSS and JavaScript.  Developers should references Apple's "About HTML5 Audio and Video" and  "iOS-Specific Considerations" for proper implementation.


Eclipse techniques

There are no specific Eclipse techniques for this checkpoint. Refer to the General techniques section.

Windows-based (MSAA+IA2) techniques

There are no specific Windows-based (MSAA+IA2) techniques for this checkpoint. Refer to the General techniques section.

Most links in this checklist reside outside ibm.com at the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. W3C Recommendation 11 December 2008: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/

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